Useful references

ARM Cortex-A series

Brawny cores still beat wimpy cores, most of the time by Urs Holzle of Google

ARM versus x86 performance comparison

12-core ARM cluster benchmarked against Intel Atom, Ivy Bridge, AMD Fusion

ARM (Nvidia Tegra 2/3, Samsung Exynos 5) vs. & Intel Core i7 performance & power consumption comparison

ARM Cortex-A family architecture by Hiroshige Goto

ARM Cortex-A series

Architecture Instruction set Extra features Clock rate (GHz) Cores Implementations
Cortex-A5 ARM v7, Jazelle, Thumb-2 DSP, VFPv3 floating point (optional), NEON SIMD (optional)
In-order, 9-stage single-decode pipeline
0.53-1 1-4
Cortex-A7 ARM v7, Jazelle, Thumb-2 DSP, VFPv4 floating point, NEON SIMD, virtualization
In-order, 8-stage limited dual-decode pipeline
> 1 1-4
Cortex-A8 ARM v7, Thumb-2 VFPv3 floating point, NEON SIMD 0.53-1 1 Freescale I.MX5?, Samsung Hummingbird, TI OMAP3
In-order, 13-stage dual-decode pipeline
Cortex-A9 ARM v7, Jazelle, Thumb-2 DSP, VFPv3 floating point (optional), NEON SIMD (optional) 0.8-2 1-4 nVidia Tegra 2, Samsung Exynos 4210, ST-Ericsson NovaThor U8500, TI OMAP4
Out-of-order, 9-12 stage dual-decode pipeline
Cortex-A15 ARM v7, Jazelle, Thumb-2 TrustZone, VFPv4 floating point, 40-bit Large Physical Address Extensions, Virtualization, L2 cache
Out-of-order, 15+ stages triple-decode pipeline
1-2.5 1-32 ST-Ericsson Nova A9600, TI OMAP5, Samsung Exynos5
Cortex-A17 ARM v7, Jazelle, Thumb-2 big.LITTLE 1-4
Cortex-A35 ARM v8-A 64-bit (successor to Cortex-A5 & A7)
Cortex-A53 ARM v8-A 64-bit (successor to Cortex-A9)
Cortex-A57 ARM v8-A 64-bit (successor to Cortex-A15)
Cortex-A72 ARM v8-A 64-bit (successor to Cortex-A17)

ARM Cortex-A5 implementations

Chip Clock rate (GHz) Cores Fabrication Launch Date GPU
Actions ATM7029 1.3 4 40 nm Vivante GC1000
Qualcomm Snapdragon S4 MSM8225 1 2 45 nm 1H 2012 Adreno 203

ARM Cortex-A7 implementations

Chip Clock rate (GHz) Cores Fabrication Launch Date GPU
Allwinner A20 1 2 45 nm December 2012 Mali 400MP2
Allwinner A31 1 4 40 nm December 2012 PowerVR SGX 544 MP2
MediaTek MT6572 1.2 2 28 nm May 2013 Mali 400
MediaTek MT6588 1.7 4 28 nm Q4 2013
MediaTek MT6589 1.2 4 28 nm December 2012 PowerVR SGX 544 MP
MediaTek MT6592 1.7 - 2 8 28 nm Q4 2013
MediaTek MT8125 1.5 4 ?? nm May 2013 PowerVR SGX 544
MediaTek MT8389 1.2 4 28 nm May 2013 PowerVR SGX 544

ARM Cortex-A8 implementations

Chip Clock rate (GHz) Cores Fabrication Launch Date GPU
Allwinner A10 1 1 55 nm Late 2011 Mali 400
Allwinner A13 1 1 45 nm March 2012 Mali 400
Rockchip RK2918 1.2 1 55 nm 2011 Vivante GC800

ARM Cortex-A9 implementations

Chip Clock rate (GHz) Cores Fabrication Launch Date GPU
AMLogic AML8726-MX 1.2 - 1.5 2 40 nm 2012 Mali 400
Freescale i.MX6Quad 1.5 4 40 nm Vivante GC2000
HiSilicon K3V2 1.4 4 28 nm Q3 2012 Vivante GC4000
MediaTek MT6575 1 1 40 nm February 2012 PowerVR SGX 531ultra
MediaTek MT6577 1 - 1.2 2 40 nm June 2012 PowerVR SGX 531
MediaTek MT8377 1.2 2 40 nm January 2013 PowerVR SGX 531
NVidia Tegra 3 1.2 - 1.7 4 40 nm Q4 2011 ULP Geforce
Rockchip RK2928 1.2 1 40 nm October 2012 Mali 400 MP
Rockchip RK3066 1.6 2 40 nm April 2012 Mali 400 MP
Rockchip RK3168 1.2 2 28 nm April 2013 PowerVR SGX 540
Rockchip RK3188 1.8 4 28 nm January 2013 Mali 400 MP4
Samsung Exynos 4 Dual (4210) 1.2 - 1.4 2 45 nm Q1 2011 Mali 400 MP4
Samsung Exynos 4 Dual (4212) 1.2 - 1.4 2 32 nm 2011 Mali 400 MP4
Samsung Exynos 4 Quad (4412) 1.4 - 1.6 4 32 nm 2012 Mali 400 MP4
TI OMAP 4430 1 - 1.2 2 45 nm Q1 2011 PowerVR SGX 540
TI OMAP 4460 1.2 - 1.5 2 45 nm Q4 2011 PowerVR SGX 540
TI OMAP 4470 1.3 - 1.8 2 45 nm Q2 2012 PowerVR SGX 544
VIA WM8950 1 1 2012 Mali 400

ARM Cortex-A15 (or compatible) implementations

Chip Clock rate (GHz) Cores Fabrication Launch Date GPU
HiSilicon K3V3 1.8 4 28 nm 2H 2013 Mali T658
NVidia Tegra 4 1.9 4 28 nm Q2 2013 ULP Geforce
Qualcomm Snapdragon S4 MSM8260A,
MSM8660A,
MSM8960
1.7 2 28 nm Q1 2012 Adreno 225
Qualcomm Snapdragon S4 APQ8064,
MPQ8064
1.7 4 28 nm Q2 2012 Adreno 320
Qualcomm Snapdragon 600 8064T 1.7 - 1.9 4 28 nm Q1 2013 Adreno 320
Qualcomm Snapdragon 800 8x74 - 2.3 4 28 nm Q2 2013 Adreno 330
Samsung Exynos 5 Dual (5250) 1.7 2 32 nm Q3 2012 Mali T604
Samsung Exynos 5 Octa (5410) 1.2 - 1.8 4+4 28 nm Q3 2013 PowerVR SGX 544 MP3

ARM Cortex-A17 (or compatible) implementations

Chip Clock rate (GHz) Cores Fabrication Launch Date GPU
Rockchip RK3288 1.8 4 28 nm May 2014 Mali-T764

ARM Cortex A53, A57 & big.LITTLE implementations

Chip Clock rate (GHz) Cores Fabrication Launch Date GPU
Samsung Exynos 7 Octa (5433) 1.3 & 1.9 4+4 20 nm Q4 2014 Mali-T760 MP6 @ 700MHz
Samsung Exynos 7 Octa (7420) 1.5 & 2.1 4+4 14 nm Q2 2015 Mali-T760 MP8 @ 772 MHz
Samsung Exynos 8 Octa (8890) 4+4 14 nm Q1 2016 Mali-T860 MP12
Samsung Exynos 9 Octa (8895) 4+4 10 nm Q2 2017 Mali-G71 MP20
Samsung Exynos 9 Octa (9810) 4+4 10 nm Q1 2018 Mali-G72 MP18
Qualcomm Snapdragon 810 (MSM8994) 1.55 & 1.95 4+4 20 nm Q1 2015 Adreno 430
Qualcomm Snapdragon 820 (MSM8996) 1.6 - 2.2 4 14 nm Q1 2016 Adreno 530
Qualcomm Snapdragon 835 (MSM8998) 1.9 & 2.45 4+4 10 nm Q4 2016 Adreno 540
Qualcomm Snapdragon 845 (SDM845) 1.8 & 2.8 4+4 10 nm Q4 2017 Adreno 630
NVidia X1 4+4 20 nm Q2 2015 Maxwell
HiSilicon Kirin 93x 1.55 & 2 4+4 (A53e & A53) 28 nm Q1 2015 Mali-T628 MP4
HiSilicon Kirin 95x 1.8 & 2.5 4+4 (A53 & A72) 16 nm Q4 2015, Q2 2016 Mali-T880 MP4
HiSilicon Kirin 960 1.84 & 2.36 4+4 (A53 & A73) 16 nm Q4 2016 Mali-G71 MP8
HiSilicon Kirin 970 1.84 & 2.36 4+4 (A53 & A73) 10 nm Q4 2017 Mali-G72 MP12
HiSilicon Kirin 980 1.8 & 2.6 4+4 (A55 & A76) 7 nm Q4 2018 Mali-G76 MP10
MediaTek MT673x 1.3 - 1.5 4 A53 28 nm Q3 2014 Mali-T760 MP2
MediaTek MT675x 1.5 - 1.7 8 A53 28 nm Mali-T760 MP2
MediaTek MT6795 (Helio X10) 2.2 8 A53 28 nm Q4 2014 PowerVR G6200 @ 700 MHz
MediaTek MT6797 (Helio X20) 4 A53 @ 1.4GHz
4 A53 @ 2GHz
2 A72 @ 2.5GHz
20 nm Q1 2016 Mali-T880
MediaTek Helio X30 4 A53 @ 2.2GHz
4 A35 @ 2GHz
2 A73 @ 2.8GHz
10 nm Q1 2017 PowerVR 7XT
AMLogic S905 2 4 A53 Q3 2015 Mali-450MP
Rockchip RK3368 1.2 - 1.5 8 A53 28 nm Q1 2015 PowerVR SGX6110
Rockchip RK3399 2 4 A53, 2 A72 28 nm Q4 2016 Mali-T864
Allwinner A64 4 A53 Q4 2015 Mali-400 MP2
HiSilicon HI3798C 4 A53 Q4 2015 Mali-720

Apple processors

Chip Microarchitecture Clock rate (GHz) Cores Fabrication Launch Date GPU Products
A4 Cortex-A8 0.8 - 1 1 45 nm Q2 2010 PowerVR SGX 535 iPhone 4, iPad
A5 Cortex-A9 0.8 - 1 1 - 2 32 - 45 nm Q1 2011 PowerVR SGX 543MP2 iPhone 4S, iPad 2, iPad mini
A5X Cortex-A9 1 2 45 nm Q1 2012 PowerVR SGX 543MP4 iPad 3
A6 Cortex-A7-A 1.3 2 32 nm Q3 2012 PowerVR SGX 543MP3 iPhone 5
A6X Cortex-A7-A 1.4 2 32 nm Q4 2012 PowerVR SGX 554MP4 iPad 4
A7 Cyclone/Cortex-A8-A 1.3 - 1.4 2 28 nm Q3 2013 PowerVR G6430 iPhone 5S, iPad Air, iPad Mini 2, iPad Mini 3
A8 Typhoon/Cortex-A8-A 1.1 - 1.5 2 20 nm Q3 2014 PowerVR G6450 iPhone 6, iPad Mini 4
A8X Typhoon/Cortex-A8-A 1.5 2 20 nm Q4 2014 PowerVR 6XT iPad Air 2
A9 Twister/Cortex-A8-A 1.85 2 14 - 16 nm Q3 2015 PowerVR 7XT GT7600 iPhone 6S, iPhone SE
A9X Twister/Cortex-A8-A 2.16 - 2.26 2 14 - 16 nm Q3 2015 PowerVR 7XT iPad Pro
A10 Fusion Hurricane/Cortex-A8-A - 2.34 2+2 16 nm Q3 2016 iPhone 7
A11 Bionic Monsoon+Mistral/Cortex-A8-A - 2.39 2+4 10 nm Q3 2017 iPhone 8, iPhone X
A12 Bionic Vortex+Tempest/Cortex-A8-A - 2.39 2+4 7 nm Q3 2018 iPhone XS